The characteristics of creatine a popular dietary supplement
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What is creatine
Gentamicin, amikacin and tobramycin are examples of aminoglycoside antibiotics. However, 44 percent of high-school senior athletes admitted taking creatine for both athletic performance and appearance. Supplementation Regimens and Considerations Creatine is stored within skeletal muscle as both free creatine and as phosphocreatine serving as a key substrate for substrate-level phosphorylation and the resynthesis of ATP 4. In a study of 20 Parkinson's patients, people who were taking creatine supplements made better gains over 24 sessions of an upper-body strength conditioning program compared with people who took a placebo, according to the paper published in the journal Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. As mentioned above, myostatin has an opposite effect when compared with the MRFs, in that it suppresses satellite cell activation. Finally, and as summarized by Kreider et al. A summary of these studies can be found in Table 1. As an ergogenic aid and in summary, creatine supplementation is commonly one of the most highly recommended and advocated by researchers and professional organizations 1 , 2 , Overall, the IOM committee considered kidney problems to be an unusual reaction to creatine supplements, but didn't entirely dismiss the risk to kidneys. However, studies have suggested a limit to creatine benefits in highly trained athletes. In this respect and in completing this review, we have identified areas where scientifically controlled, high-quality studies are needed to help build and progress this body of literature. The rest is stored in the heart, brain and other tissues.
More recently, creatine has been established as a legitimate nutritional adjunct in areas related to rehabilitation and neuromuscular disorders with growing evidence for some therapeutic efficacy in thermoregulation, concussions, head trauma, autism, and neuroprotection 2.
A significant amount of concern and caution have been present within the media and sporting world up to this point regarding creatine use in younger populations.
It is worth mentioning that some individuals point to the warnings provided on product labels that individuals younger than 18 years of age should not take creatine and inappropriately extrapolate this as evidence that creatine supplementation is unsafe in younger populations, rather than acknowledging there are insufficient data to confirm the need for such warnings.
A number of clinical applications of creatine supplementation have also been studied involving neurodegenerative diseases e.
This has not however been directly assessed in older adults and is an avenue for future research. As a dietary supplement, creatine is regarded as one of the more well-researched and efficacious nutritional ergogenic aids available to athletes 2. No significant effects of creatine supplementation on muscle fiber area were evident, despite an increase in lean tissue mass and strength found in one of these studies. More studies are needed to determine whether creatine supplements may reduce high cholesterol, according to the NIH. Dietary supplement use in youth and adolescent populations. Some claim creatine can help rheumatoid arthritis and COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. For example, over 8 weeks of resistance training in young men, creatine supplementation resulted in a faster increase in satellite cell number, myonuclei per muscle fiber, and muscle fiber size. Collectively, these high-energy phosphates play a vital role in several metabolic processes within the body, particularly during the first 10 s of high-intensity exercise such that depletion of PCr is accepted as a major source of fatigue 5 , 6. Creatine added to murine cell culture enhanced differentiation by activating these pathways involved in translation; 85 however, when creatine was supplemented for 5 days before an acute resistance training session in young human adults, there was either enhanced activation of only specific components of this pathway and only at 24 hours postexercise 86 or no enhanced activation of these pathways. Safety of Creatine Use In adults, a growing number of published randomized controlled trials are available that support the safety of creatine supplementation.
Study duration was 7—52 weeks. Efficacy of Creatine Use in Adolescents Despite the overwhelming supportive body of literature regarding the efficacy of creatine supplementation in adult athletes, limited data are available in adolescent athletes.
Dangers of creatine
As an ergogenic aid and in summary, creatine supplementation is commonly one of the most highly recommended and advocated by researchers and professional organizations 1 , 2 , However, many scientists believe more study of creatine needs to be done. Cramping, stomach pain, nausea and diarrhea are the most commonly reported side effects from taking creatine supplements. As a result, strength and power or anaerobic-type sports such as football, wrestling, and hockey appear to have the highest rates of use. Creatine might enhance energy stores, including PCr and glycogen to allow better buffering ie, resynthesis of ATP during intense exercise. There are dangers associated with use of unrestricted supplements. Mohebbi et al. Beyond athletic performance, clinicians have begun experimenting with creatine to treat various disorders. Of these studies, five combined creatine supplementation with other nutritional supplements ie, protein or conjugated linoleic acid. In three of the eight studies mentioned, no adverse events or side-effects were reported by the participants following supplementation, and the remaining five studies did not report adverse event occurrences. Then the participants continued by taking 60 milligrams of creatine per kilogram of body weight for the rest of the five-week study. As a dietary supplement, creatine is regarded as one of the more well-researched and efficacious nutritional ergogenic aids available to athletes 2. Keywords: muscle, age, sarcopenia, exercise, nutrition, bench press, leg press Introduction The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People characterizes sarcopenia as a loss of both muscle mass and muscle function ie, strength and performance , 1 whereas the International Working Group on Sarcopenia defines sarcopenia as a decline in muscle mass and walking speed. Creatine is a common ingredient muscle-building supplements and sports drinks. Similarly, Battini et al.
Metabolic role Creatine, a member of the guanidine phosphagen family, is a naturally occurring non-protein amino acid compound found primarily in red meat and seafood [ 1 — 4 ].
Males appear to be more likely than females to report using creatine and the most commonly reported reasons for supplementation often include a desire to increase lean body mass and for increased energy production. Collectively, these high-energy phosphates play a vital role in several metabolic processes within the body, particularly during the first 10 s of high-intensity exercise such that depletion of PCr is accepted as a major source of fatigue 56.
In this respect, none of these studies observed any gastrointestinal discomfort or changes in hemodynamic, urine, or any blood markers of clinical health and safety following the supplementation periods. There were no language restrictions. Improving athletic performance Athletes commonly use creatine supplements, because there is some evidence that they are effective in high-intensity training.
Furthermore, an emerging body of literature in adolescent athletes using creatine has suggested that, first, creatine use in adolescent athletes appears to be well-tolerated with no reported adverse events and, second, that creatine use in this population can operate in an ergogenic fashion [see Table 4also extensively reviewed by 2 ].
based on 7 review