Inthe Apostolic Vicariate of Bontoc-Lagawe recorded a Furthermore, their culture was known for their legal system, using one of the world's most extensive oral legal traditions specifying the offense depending on the use of custom law; trial by elders influenced in part by public opinion ; or trial by ordeal.
The Ifugaos were not familiar with the American educational process and this knowledge was of uncertain benefit—seemingly unequal to the services the children traditionally provided at home such as caring for younger siblings, chopping firewood, or helping in the fields.
Indeed, many parents discouraged their children from attending school, believing they were getting lazy and had not learned anything. Beyer even tried to attract children by providing free lunches in school, but once the free lunch program was discontinued, pupils no longer attended.
In the Philippine Commission created the highly centralized public school system. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor During the American occupation, classes were taught irregularly by soldiers of the American military who visited the village of Kiangan between and An Urgent Need for Reform Recognizing that culture is dynamic yet powerful, indigenous peoples should be introduced to Western knowledge systems but at the same time be equipped with the skills to understand the context of such knowledge so they will not look down on traditional culture as inferior.